Acetylcysteine liquefies phlegm. The presence in the structure acetylcysteine sulfhydryl groups helps break the disulfide bonds, acid mucopolysaccharides mucus, which leads to depolarization and mukoproteidov to decrease mucus viscosity. The drug remains active in the presence of purulent sputum.When prophylactic use of acetylcysteine marked decrease in the frequency and severity of exacerbations in patients with chronic bronchitis and cystic fibrosis.Protective mechanism of acetylcysteine is based on the ability of its reactive sulfhydryl groups bind chemical radicals.
acetylcysteine is rapidly and almost completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Due to the high effect of “first pass” through the liver bioavailability acetylcysteine is about 10%. Maximum plasma concentration achieved by the drug 1-3 hours after ingestion. Plasma protein binding to acetylcysteine is about 50%. Acetylcysteine is excreted mainly by the kidneys in the form of inactive metabolites (inorganic sulfates, diatsetiltsistein). A small portion is allocated unchanged in the feces. The half-life of acetylcysteine is about 1 hour. Abnormal liver function leads to an increase in half-life of the drug to 8 hours.
Acetylcysteine crosses the placental barrier and is found in amniotic fluid.
Indications for use:
- respiratory diseases, accompanied by increased production methenolone enanthate side effects of viscous sputum: acute and chronic bronchitis, pneumonia. bronchiectasis, obstructive bronchitis, bronchial asthma, cystic fibrosis;
- laryngitis, acute and chronic sinusitis;
- otitis media.
Acetylcysteine administered prophylactically to prevent the complications of operations on the organs of respiration, as well as after intratracheal anesthesia.
- Hypersensitivity to acetylcysteine or any other part of the preparation.
- Gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer in the acute stage.
- Pregnancy, lactation, children under 2 years old.
Precautions should use the drug in patients who are prone to lung bleeding, hemoptysis, as well as in patients with liver disease, kidney, adrenal violation, varicose veins of the esophagus and hypertension.
Patients with bronchial asthma and obstructive bronchitis acetylcysteine should be administered with caution (systematic control of bronchial patency).
Dosing and Administration
The drug should be taken after meals, dissolving the contents of the package in half a glass of water.
Babies with 2 to 6: 0,5 packet 2-3 times a day.
Children 6 to 14 years: 0.5 Pack 3 times a day, or 1 packet 2 times per day.
Children older than 14 years and adults: 1 package 3 times a day.
Duration of treatment is determined individually. In acute methenolone enanthate side effects diseases, duration of reception is from 5 to 7 days.
In chronic bronchitis and cystic fibrosis drug should be taken over a long period of time (several weeks).
In rare cases, there are: headache, inflammation of the mucous membranes of the mouth (stomatitis), tinnitus, drowsiness. Very rarely – diarrhea, vomiting, heartburn, nausea, feeling of fullness. In rare cases, allergic reactions such as bronchospasm (predominantly in patients with bronchial asthma patients), decreased blood pressure, increased heart rate (tachycardia), skin rash, itching and hives. There are few reports about the development of nasal bleeding.
In developing side effects to stop taking the drug and consult a doctor.
In accidental or intentional overdose are observed: nausea, heartburn, vomiting, stomach pain and diarrhea. So far there is no evidence of life-threatening side effects or poisoning when using acetylcysteine.
Interactions with other drugs
can not assign acetylcysteine along with antitussives because of the danger of stagnation of phlegm due to the suppression of the cough reflex. Simultaneous administration methenolone enanthate side effects of acetylcysteine and nitroglycerin may lead to increased action of the latter.
It reduces absorption of penicillins, cephalosporins, tetracycline (they should be taken no earlier than 2 hours after oral administration of acetylcysteine). In connection with a possible decrease in prothrombin time against the background of the appointment of high doses of acetylcysteine, you must monitor the status of the blood coagulation system. May alter test results quantifying salicylate (colorimetric test) and Test quantitation ketones (sodium nitroprusside test).
When treating patients with diabetes need to take into account that part of the drug include sodium saccharin.
Should use glassware The dissolution of the drug.